Project Information

Please download here general project material, such as fact sheets and project figures.


Publicly available project results and abstracts of non-public Deliverables will be available for download.

Presentations and Papers

Find here project presentations and links to published papers.


L3Pilot Global User Acceptance Survey Selected Results
Essential Results


L3Pilot Final Event, 27th ITS World Congress, Hamburg, Germany
Oct 13-14, 2021

L3Pilot – The Flagship Project
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen AG

The Bright Future of Mobility
Nikolai Ardey, Volkswagen AG

EU Vision and Strategy for CCAM
Tom Alkim, European Commission

Smart and sustainable mobility – a EUCAR perspective
Stefan Deix, EUCAR

L3Pilot Key Results
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen AG

Code of Practice
Yves Page, Renault Group

Piloting Automated Driving
Luisa Andreone, Stellantis-CRF

Data Handling and Sharing
Johannes Hiller, ika

Methodology and Evaluation
Satu Innamaa, VTT
Hendrik Weber, ika

L3Pilot Methodology
Satu Innamaa, VTT

Method for Technical and Traffic Evaluation
Hendrik Weber, ika

Technical and Traffic Results Motorway Chauffeur
Barbara Metz, WIVW

Technical and Traffic Assessment Results Urban ADF
Johannes Hiller, ika

Parking Chauffeur - Results
Barbara Metz, WIVW

Piloting Site Questionnaire: User and Acceptance Evaluation
Natasha Merat, Yee Mun Lee, Ruth Madigan, Tyron Louw, University of Leeds

User and Acceptance Evaluation: Video Coding
Linda Pipkorn, Chalmers University
Thomas Streubel, Chalmers University

L3Pilot Published Databases
Hendrik Weber, ika

Human Driving Behavior and ADF Performance in Urban Traffic Areas
Meng Zhang, Juan Trullos, Michael Böhm, Marek Junghans, DLR

EU Support for Large-Scale Cooperation
Marcel Rommerts, CINEA

Supplementary Studies
Barbara Metz, WIVW

Investigating Drivers’ Car-Following Behaviour After Automated Driving
Tyron Louw, University of Leeds

Long-Term User Acceptance and Trust in Automated Vehicles: Results of a Real-Traffic Study
Alexander Zerbe, bast

Wizard-of-Oz Studies on Test Track and Public Roads
Linda Pipkorn, Chalmers University

Driving Simulator Study on Long-Term Effects on User Acceptance and Behavioural Adaptation to ADF
Johanna Wörle, WIVW

Mobility Impact Assessment
Esko Lehtonen, Fanny Malin, VTT

Efficiency and Environmental Impact Assessment
Elina Aittoniemi, Teemu Itkonen, Satu Innamaa, Mina Torrao, Henri Sintonen, VTT
Michael Schuldes, ika

Safety Impact Assessment
Monte-Carlo Traffic Simulation-Based Assessment: Felix Fahrenkrog, BMW
Counterfactual Simulation: Pierluigi Olleja, Chalmers University
Monte-Carlo based Driving Scenario (Urban) Simulation: Hendrik Weber, ika
Parking ADF: Marcel Borrack, AZT
Safety Impact Assessment Qualitative Analysis: Yves Page, Renault Group

Scaling up − Safety Impact Assessment
Anne Silla, Fanny Malin, Henri Sintonen, Satu Innamaa, VTT

Socio-Economic Impact Assessment
Afsaneh Bjorvatn, Per Heum, Karl Rolf Pedersen, SNF

ADF Impact Assessment – Wrap-Up Session
Hendrik Weber, ika
Yves Page, Renault Group

L3 Pilot Global User Acceptance Survey
Tanja Kessel, EICT

Collaborative Business Models for Automated Driving – Design and Evaluation
Frank Berkers, Sri Ganesan, TNO
David Ertl, FIA
Eckhard Schueler-Hainsch, EICT

Aria Etemad, Volkswagen AG


EUCAD 2021, Virtual
Apr 20-22, 2021

Vehicle Automated Functions Challenges
Luisa Andreone, CRF

The L3Pilot Approach – From vehicle data collection to a common data base
Barbara Metz, WIVW


ARCADE: workshop on data sharing for automated driving
Feb 25, 2021

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Yves Page, RENAULT

Getting from Vehicle Data to Evaluation Data
Johannes Hiller, ika RWTH Aachen University


[Journal] Louw, T., Madigan, R., Lee, Y.M., Nordhoff, S., Lehtonen, E., Innamaa, S., Malin, F., Bjorvatn, A., Merat, N. (2021). Drivers’ Intentions to Use Different Functionalities of Conditionally Automated Cars: A Survey Study of 18,631 Drivers from 17 Countries (→external link).

[Journal] Wörle, J., Metz, B., Steinborn, M., Huestegge, L., Baumann, M. (2021). Differential effects of driver sleepiness and sleep inertia on driving behavior (→external link).

[Journal] Metz, B., Wörle, J., Hanig, M., Schmitt, M., Lutz, A. (2020). Repeated usage of a motorway automated driving function: Automation level and behavioural adaption (→external link).

[Journal] Lehtonen, E., Malin, F., Innamaa, S., Nordhoff, S. , Louw, T., Bjorvatn, A., Merat, N. (2020). Are multimodal travellers going to abandon sustainable travel for L3 automated vehicles? (→external link).

[Journal] Lehtonen, E., Wörle, J., Malin, F., Metz, B., Innamaa, S. (2020). Travel experience matters: Expected personal mobility impacts after simulated L3/L4 automated driving (→external link).

[Journal] Berta, R., Kobeissi, A., Bellotti, F., De Gloria, A. (2020). Atmosphere, an Open Source Measurement-Oriented Data Framework for IoT (→external link).

[Journal] Hiller, J., Koskinen, S., Berta, R., Osman, N., Nagy, B., Bellotti, F., Rahman, A., Svanberg, E., Weber, H., Arnold, E., Dianati, M., De Gloria, A. (2020). The L3Pilot Data Management Toolchain for a Level 3 Vehicle Automation Pilot (→external link).

[Journal] Nordhoff, S., Louw, T., Innamaa, S., Lehtonen, E., Beuster, A., Torrao, G., Bjorvatn, A., Kessel, T., Malin, F., Happee, R., Merat, N. (2020). Using the UTAUT2 model to explain public acceptance of conditionally automated (L3) cars: A questionnaire study among 9,118 car drivers from eight European countries (→external link).

[Journal] Bellotti, F., Osman, N., Arnold, E.H., Mozaffari, S., Innamaa, S., Louw, T., Torrao, G., Weber, H., Hiller, J., De Gloria, A., Dianati, M., Berta, R. (2020). Managing Big Data for Addressing Research Questions in a Collaborative Project on Automated Driving Impact Assessment (→external link).

[Journal] Louw, T., Goncalves, R., Torrao, G., Radhakrishnan, V., Lyu, W., Guillen, P. P., Merat, N. (2020). Do drivers change their manual car-following behaviour after automated car-following? (→external link).

[Journal] Pipkorn, L., Victor, T., Dozza, M., Tivesten, E. (2020). Automation Aftereffects: The Influence of Automation Duration, Test Track and Timings (→external link).

[Journal] Wolter, S., Caccia Dominioni, G., Hergeth, S., Tango, F., Whitehouse, S., Naujoks, F. (2020). Human–Vehicle Integration in the Code of Practice for Automated Driving (→external link).

[Journal] Pipkorn, L., Victor, T., Dozza, M., Tivesten, E. (2020). Driver conflict response during supervised automation: Do hands on wheel matter? (→external link).

[Journal] Metz, B., Wörle, J., Hanig, M., Schmitt, M., Lutz, A. (2020). Repeated Usage of an L3 Motorway Chauffeur: Change of Evaluation and Usage (→external link).


Virtual ITS European Congress
Nov 9-10, 2020

PS1122 - Comprehensive tools for advancing Automated Driving systems
[L3Pilot presentations]

Comprehensive Methodology for Evaluating Automated Driving in Europe
Satu Innamaa, VTT

Code of Practice for Automated Driving
Felix Fahrenkrog, BMW

Common Data Format for Automated Driving Testing
Johannes Hiller, ika

User Study
Sina Nordhoff, EICT


L3Pilot Summer School, Virtual
Sep 9-10, 2020

Piloting Automated Driving in European Roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Innovation, Germany

Automated Driving L3 and beyond – the key aspects
Angelos Amditis, ICCS, Greece

Towards a Code of Practice for Automated Driving
Stefan Wolter, Ford, Germany

Admission procedures for testing on public roads in the Netherlands
Pieter van der Stoep, RDW, the Netherlands

Human, what human?
Oliver Carsten, University of Leeds, UK

Transition in Automated Driving
Alexander Eriksson, Volvo Cars, Sweden

Transition from automated to manual driving: What factors influence take-over time and performance?
Marieke Martens, TNO, the Netherlands

Designing interaction of automated vehicles for mixed traffic environment: Development, integration and evaluation of the interACT system
Fabio Tango, CRF, Italy

Intelligent Road and Infrastructure data for automated driving
Dominique Gruyer, Nicolas Hautière, University Gustave Eiffel, France

Case for Connected Autonomy and Implications for 5G Systems
Mehrdad Dianati, University of Warwick, UK

Enabling automation for Heavy Duty Vehicles – What the key aspects are
Marc-Michael Meinecke, Volkswagen Group Innovation, Germany

Data Privacy for Automation: Leveraging Privacy Enhancing Technologies
Jesus Diaz Vico, IBM Research Division, Switzerland

Cyber-Security for Automation: The Challenge
Jonathan Petit, Qualcomm, USA

Testing framework for Automated Driving
Adrian Zlocki, fka GmbH, Germany

Harmonised European Solutions for Testing Automated Road Transport – The Headstart Approach
Álvaro Arrúe, Applus IDIADA, Spain

Towards a robust verification methodology for CAVs
James McCallion, Horiba Mira, UK

Wizard of Oz design for testing automated driving on public roads
Thomas Streubel, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

Deep Neural Networks based Simulation for Next Generation AD Virtual Testing
Heikki Laine, VP Product, Cognata, Israel

Multisensor Large Scale Data Management for Training Sets and Ground Truth Automatic Generation
Marcos Nieto, Vicomtech, Spain

Validation of automated driving systems using scenario-based massive simulations
Alexandru Forrai, Siemens Digital Industries Software, The Netherlands


Transport Research Arena 2020, Webinar
June 23, 2020

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Innovation


Transport Research Arena 2020, Helsinki, Finland
April 27-30, 2020 (conference cancelled)

Innamaa, S., Louw, T., Merat, N., Torrao, G., & Aittoniemi, E. (2020). Applying the FESTA methodology to automated driving pilots (→external link).


[Book Chapter] Rösener, C., Zlocki, A., Weber, H., Hiller, J. (2019). Evaluation of Automated Driving by Large-Scale Piloting on European Roads – The L3Pilot Project. In G. Meyer & S. Beiker (Eds.), Road Vehicle Automation 6 (→external link).


L3Pilot second Showcase, EUCAR Annual Reception & Conference, Autoworld Brussels, Belgium
Nov 6-7, 2019

Towards an integrated approach to testing automated driving on public roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Innovation


26th ITS World Congress, Singapore
Oct 21-25, 2019

Nagy B, Hiller J, Osman N, Koskinen S, Svanberg E, Bellotti F, Berta R, Kobeissi A, De Gloria A. (2019). Building a Data Management Toolchain for a Level 3 Vehicle Automation Pilot (→external link).


Towards an integrated approach to testing automated driving on public roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen, Germany


SIS23 Testing of Automated Driving on Public Roads: Challenges and First Lessons Learned
Organiser: Aria Etemad, Volkswagen; Moderator: Angelos Amditis, ICCS


Methodology for evaluating automated driving in Europe
Satu Innamaa, VTT, Finland

Cyber-security for AD experiments in Europe
Jukka Laitinen, VTT, Finland, Anastasia Bolovinou, ICCS, Greece


Technical Session 23:

Methodological challenges related to real-world automated driving pilots
Satu Innamaa, VTT, Finland

Assessing mobility impacts of automated driving in L3Pilot
Satu Innamaa, VTT, Finland

Setting up Experimental Procedure for Level 3 Automated Driving Pilots
Merja Penttinen, VTT, Finland


Automated Vehicles Symposium, Orlando, USA
Jul 15-18, 2019

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Satu Innamaa, VTT, Finland


Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, Paris, France
Jun 9-12, 2019

Bolovinou A, Atmaca U, Sheik A, Ur-Rehman O, Wallraf G, Amditis A. (2019). TARA+: Controllability-aware Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment for L3 Automated Driving Systems(→external link)


ITS European Congress 2019, Brainport Eindhoven, Netherlands
Jun 3-6, 2019

From research questions and study design to common data format
Satu Innamaa, VTT


2018 21th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Hawaii, USA
Nov 4-7, 2018

Roesener C, Harth M, Weber H, Josten J, Eckstein L. (2018). Modelling Human Driver Performance for Safety Assessment of Road Vehicle Automation (→external link)


L3Pilot first Showcase, EUCAR Annual Reception & Conference, Autoworld Brussels, Belgium
Nov 6-7, 2018


Overview over L3Pilot, User study
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Research

Implementation of ADFs and pre-piloting
Yves Page, Groupe Renault

From research questions and study design to common data format
Satu Innamaa, VTT

Draft Code of Practice
Robert Martinez von Buelow, BMW


IEDAS 2018, Ingolstadt, Germany
Oct 24-25, 2018

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Florian Raisch, BMW


25th ITS World Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark
Sep 17-21, 2018

SIS45 Challenges on Testing and Validation of Automated Driving
Organiser: Aria Etemad, VW; Moderator: Angelos Amditis, ICCS


Pilot preparation and automated driving functions
Yves Page, Groupe Renault

Methodology for piloting, testing and evaluation of automated driving system
Satu Innamaa, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.

Evaluation Methodology of Automated Driving
Hendrik Weber, ika

Validation scenarios for VRU – Results of the PROSPECT project
Andrés Aparicio, ADAS/AD

Code of practice for automated driving functions
Andreas Knapp, Daimler AG

TS55 Impact Evaluation

Methodology for evaluation in L3Pilot
Satu Innamaa, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.


First L3Pilot webinar
Sep 6, 2018

Part of the CAD webinar series, moderated by Sophia Adam, ICCS


Brief introduction to L3Pilot project, Sarah Metzner, EICT
Objectives of L3Pilot methodology, Satu Innamaa, VTT
Setting experimental procedures for the pilots, Merja Penttinen, VTT
Evaluation method for takeover requests, Barbara Metz, WIVW

Entire webinar on YouTube (→external link).


European Transport Research Conference (TRA), Vienna, Austria
Apr 16-19, 2018

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Research


Driving Future Platform, Brussels, Belgium
Mar 7, 2018

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Research


AAAS 2018 (American Association for the Advancement of Science), Texas, USA
Feb 16, 2018

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Research, represented by Ingrid Skogsmo, European Comission


TRB 97th Annual Meeting 2018
Jan 7-11, 2018

Overview of automated driving research in Europa
Angelos Amditis, ICCS


Symposium on Automated and Connected Driving, Berlin, Germany
Nov 30 – Dec 1, 2017

Piloting Automated Driving on European Roads
Aria Etemad, Volkswagen Group Research

Articles on L3Pilot

Please find here links to articles about the project.







Press releases